عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Classification of sciences in ancient sources is rooted in the two sources of Revelation and intellect and is based on the objective and subjective experience of the Islamic thinkers, resulting from the ontology, epistemology, and methodology adopted from a monotheistic viewpoint. Consequently, a dynamic relationship between Islam and various types of knowledge, particularly natural sciences, mathematics, humanities has developed in Islamic civilization.
In present circumstances, although we have no clear standing about the classification of sciences, the historical criticism can be a beginning for the development of division of sciences. We know that if we do not have a modern paradigm, we will not be able to provide answers for the new questions; as a result, first chaos will ensue, then it will be followed by a crisis, and the crisis will result in a revolution. In the contemporary Iran, on the one hand, every day modern disciplines, sources, and works come into being and every day the scientific community shows more and more capabilities in production of knowledge. On the other hand, deliberation on division of sciences in Islamic sources reminds us of the reality that we can achieve a new paradigm with respect to the present exigencies. In this paradigm, the nature of science and its data, the components, differences, and similarities of different types of knowledge, the tools for cognition and the factors effective in its formation, and the methods for attaining truth and reality of the matter are achievable.