عنوان مقاله [English]
Criticism is the expression of defects in order to correct them in the direction of human growth and excellence, and it is achieved when its principles and criteria are observed from both scientific and moral aspects. In this article, the ethical aspect of criticism is discussed and its scientific aspect is left out. From the Islamic ethics point of view, an action that is good both in terms of the action and the way it is performed is called a moral act. Therefore, the moral harms of criticism can be considered in two ways: first, motivational harms and the second; its behavioral dimension harm. Motivational harms of criticism should be sought in the factors of motivation formation, which include needs, emotions and feelings, cognition and external events. Accordingly, improper satisfaction of needs, exaggeration in emotions and feelings, and epistemological error, as well as confusion of gain and loss are among the motivational harms of criticism. Behavioral harms of criticism also include methods, context and content of criticism that use immoral methods, offer criticism in unsuitable contexts in terms of time, social, cultural and political conditions and finally, in terms of content, cognitive weakness due to the influence of passions and emotions, lack of distinction between behavior and personality, and lack of comprehensiveness and realism are among the moral damages of the behavioral dimension of the act of criticism. The present study tries to analyze the moral dangers facing criticism using descriptive-analytical method and based on Nahj al-Balagha teachings.