عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The heart (dil) is one of the most frequently used words in mystical literature, which is repeated one hundred forty times in sixty sūras of the Qur’ān with such equivalents as qalb, fu’ād, and ṣadr. This article addresses the characteristics of the heart in Maḥmūd Kāshānī’s Miṣbāḥ al-Hidāya and his supporting theological references to traditions and aḥādīth.From Kāshānī’s point of view, defining the heart is difficult because of its constant change in various states and its frequent transformation. On the other hand, the heart has two material and spiritual aspects, endowing it with the capacity for accepting contrasting spiritual and sensual characteristics. The heart is born out of the combination of human soul and the self and is located in the celestial world. It may achieve purity by the eternal grace of Allah, the blessings of the Revelation, and in light of the rays of wilāyat; however, it can be deviated by seeking after the worldly gains and by being veiled from the light of Prophethood. The heart is the locus of a beloved, and the heart that is receptive of the light of the eternal Beloved cannot be the place for carnalities and material affairs.